From The Ergoweb® Learning Center

More Details and Ordering Information — Guidelines

CSA-Z412, “Guideline On Office Ergonomics”

This 300-plus page document addresses not only office equipment set up, but also includes steps for defining office ergonomics concerns, using a systems approach in analyzing the office, understanding worker characteristics, job design, job demands, work organization and office environment such as lighting and noise.

The document contains an easy to follow step by step process for integrating ergonomics into your office and includes many checklists and diagrams. The objective of CSA-Z412 is stated as:

“To optimize the design of an office system for its users, by matching the design of displays, input devices, the workplace, the working environment, work organization, and work tasks to the characteristics and abilities of potential users.”

The document CSA-Z412 “Guideline on Office Ergonomics” is available at CSA International, 178 Rexdale Blvd., Toronto, Ontario, M9W 1R3, Canada, or at

BIFMA “Ergonomics Guideline For VDT Furniture Used In Office Work Spaces”

The purpose of the BIFMAGuideline is to provide guidance in applying some of the relevant measurable ergonomic principles and design requirements found in ISO 9241-3 and 9241-5 to the dimensions and adjustment ranges of components used in the design of work spaces utilized specifically for intensive VDT use in North America, using specific anthropometric data for that population.

BIFMA mainly addresses two issues: The Work Chair, including seat height, depth, width, angle; arm rests; lumbar support and the Work Surface, including height, depth and width clearances. These issues are specifically addressed in terms of anthropometry and design dimension.

The BIFMA guideline “Ergonomics Guideline for VDT (Visual Display Terminal) Furniture Used in Office Work Spaces” is available at, or by contacting BIFMA International, 2680 Horizon Drive SE, Suite A-1, Grand Rapids, MI 49546.

BSR/HFES 100 “Human Factors Engineering of Computer Workstations”

BSR/HFES 100 provides both requirements and recommendations and is divided into four main sections: Installed Systems, Input Devices, Visual Displays, and Furniture. 

Installed Systems addresses installed and functioning workstations which an operator regularly performs computer based tasks, and the immediately surrounding environment.  Input Devices addresses products including mice and keyboards. The Visual Displays section covers color and monochrome CRTs, and color and monochrome flat-panel displays. Finally, specific Furniture components includes topics such as monitor support surfaces and operator work surfaces. The objectives of BSR/HFES 100 are cited as:

This article originally appeared in The Ergonomics Report™ on 2002-06-01.